Thursday, September 13, 2012

The Great Dr.Abdul Qadeer Khan

Every Pakistani loves Dr.Abdul Qadeer Khan who made the defence of Pakistan invincible and gave Pakistan the Nucleur Technology.
(Videos are available below the text)
Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, who was born in Bhopal on  April 1, 1936, which corresponds to the Hijri era 1355, Thursday 15th Rajab. As the time has unfolded itself, the God Gifted qualities enshrined in the words “Qadeer” and “Ghafoor”, symbolized in the names of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan and his father, Mr. Abdul Ghafoor Khan, have raised the Pakistani nation to new heights in high technology.

After receiving his early education in Bhopal,


 
  • Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan obtained the degree of Bachelor of Science in 1960 from the University of Karachi.
  • This was the beginning of the unfolding of his intellectual power. Subsequently, he studied in Berlin, West Germany and achieved high competence through attending several courses in metallurgical engineering. He obtained the degree of Master of Science (Technology) in 1967 from Delft Technological University, Holland
  • Acheived Doctor of Engineering Degree in 1972 from the University of Leuven, Belgium.
  • The restless soul of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan took him to several laboratories in Europe including Uranium Enrichment Plant in Holland.It was the essence of his being sharpened by high scholastic achievements in metallurgical and nuclear science that his will and essence at all times remained directed towards the welfare of Pakistan.
  • In 1976, he joined the Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL) in Pakistan and set up an uranium enrichment industrial plant.
  • As a tribute to his services for the security of Pakistan on May 1, 1981, the then President of Pakistan, General Mohammed Zia-ul-Haq renamed the Engineering Research Laboratories, Kahuta, as, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan Research Laboratories (KRL).

The scientific contributions of Dr. Khan have been recognized in several ways :-

  • As an active scientist and technologist, he has published more than 188 scientific research papers in international journals of high repute.
  • He has been editor of a large number of books on metallurgy, advanced materials and phase transformation.
  • His academic and scholastic activities have attracted the attention of number of western countries where he has delivered more than 100 lectures.
  • His work on Industrial Uranium Enrichment Plant for peaceful application of nuclear technology has resulted in a breakthrough in the field of metallurgy & materials science.
It is entirely due to his efforts that the process of enrichment of Uranium was successfully completed in Pakistan..
Nuclear Bombs & Missiles
This breakthrough ultimately resulted in the historic explosion of six nuclear bombs on May 28 and May 30, 1998. Not only this but a significant development was also made with the successful test firing of Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles,
  • Ghauri I, on April 6, 1998
  • Ghauri II on April 14, 1999.
Honorary Degrees
Dr. Khan has received honorary degrees of
  • Doctor of Science from the University of Karachi in 1993
  • Doctor of Science from Baqai Medical University on December 11, 1998
  • Doctor of Science from Hamdard University, Karachi, in March 6, 1999
  • Doctor of Science from Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, N.W.F.P. on April 16,1999
  • Doctor of Science from the University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore on December 9, 2000
  • Doctor of Science from the Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi on March 25, 2001.
Fellowships & Memberships:
  • Dr. Khan is a Fellow of Kazakh National Academy of Sciences, the first Asian scientist with this honour,
  • Elected Fellow of the Islamic Academy of Sciences and Honorary Member of the Korean Academy of Science & Technology.
  • He has also been elected as the Chairman of the Islamic Development Bank’s Advisory Panel on Science and Technology in the Panel’s first ever meeting, held at the IDB’s headquarters in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on October 17, 2000.
  • Being a Fellow of Pakistan Academy of Sciences, he was elected unopposed the President of the Academy’s in 1997- the position that he still occupies.
  • Besides, he is a member of a large number of national and international professional organizations, which include Pakistan Institute of Metallurgical Engineers; Pakistan Institute of Engineers; and Institute of Central and West Asian Studies.
  • He is a Member of the Institute of Materials, London and of:-
  • American Society of Metal (ASM)
  • The Metallurgical Society of the American Institute of Metallurgical Mining and Petroleum Engineers (TMS)
  • Canadian Institute of Metals (CIM) and
  • Japan Institute of Metals (JIM).
As an ardent supporter of Higher Education:
  • He sits on the Boards of Governors and Syndicates of numerous universities and institutes.
  • He is a Member of the Executive Committee GIK Institute of Engineering and Technology, TOPI
  • Member, Board of Governors, Hamdard University
  • Member, Board of Governors, Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology
  • Member Syndicate, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad; and

  • Member, Board of Governors, International Islamic University, Islamabad, among others. 

  

ATOMIC PROGRAMME


Nuclear Infrastructure
India’s 1974 testing of a nuclear “device” gave Pakistan’s nuclear program new momentum. Through the late 1970s, Pakistan’s program acquired sensitive uranium enrichment technology and expertise. The 1975 arrival of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan considerably advanced these efforts. Dr. Khan is a German-trained metallurgist who brought with him knowledge of gas centrifuge technologies that he had acquired through his position at the classified URENCO uranium enrichment plant in the Netherlands.
In 1985, Pakistan crossed the threshold of weapons-grade uranium production, and by 1986 it is thought to have produced enough fissile material for a nuclear weapon. Pakistan continued advancing its uranium enrichment program, and according to Pakistani sources, the nation acquired the ability to carry out a nuclear explosion in 1987.


  • Pakistan Nuclear Weapons – A Chronology

  • Nuclear Tests

    On May 28, 1998 Pakistan announced that it had successfully conducted five nuclear tests. The Pakistani Atomic Energy Commission reported that the five nuclear tests conducted on May 28 generated a seismic signal of 5.0 on the Richter scale, with a total yield of up to 40 KT (equivalent TNT). Dr. A.Q. Khan claimed that one device was a boosted fission device and that the other four were sub-kiloton nuclear devices.
    On May 30, 1998 Pakistan tested one more nuclear warhead with a reported yield of 12 kilotons. The tests were conducted at Balochistan, bringing the total number of claimed tests to six. It has also been claimed by Pakistani sources that at least one additional device, initially planned for detonation on 30 May 1998, remained emplaced underground ready for detonation.
    Pakistani claims concerning the number and yields of their underground tests cannot be independently confirmed by seismic means, and several sources, such as the Southern Arizona Seismic Observatory have reported lower yields than those claimed by Pakistan. Indian sources have also suggested that as few as two weapons were actually detonated, each with yields considerably lower than claimed by Pakistan. However, seismic data showed at least two and possibly a third, much smaller, test in the initial round of tests at the Ras Koh range. The single test on 30 May provided a clear seismic signal.
    DEVICE DATE YIELD
    [announced]
    YIELD
    [estimated]
    [boosted device?] 28 May 1998 25-36 kiloton total 9-12 kiloton
    Fission device 28 May 1998 12 kiloton
    Low-yield device 28 May 1998 sub-kiloton
    Low-yield device 28 May 1998 sub-kiloton
    Low-yield device 28 May 1998 sub-kiloton
    Fission device 30 May 1998 12 kiloton 4-6 kiloton
    Fission device not detonated 12 kiloton
    This table lists the nuclear tests that Pakistan claims to have carried out in May 1998 as well as the announced yields. Other sources have reported lower yields than those claimed by Pakistan. The Southern Arizona Seismic Observatory reports that the total seismic yield for the May 28th tests was 9-12 kilotons and that the yield for the May 30th tests was 4-6 kilotons.
     

    LIFE SKETCH

    As arrow of time moves, the Will of ALLAH (SWT) prevails and is focused on the emergence of humans endowed with exceptional intellectual capabilities and creative abilities. Such are the men who, by their good deeds, fulfill the edict of ALLAH (SWT), as revealed in the Holy Qurran:
    “I have created man in the best of forms.” (Al Qur’an; Surah 95; Ayah 04)
    By their deeds and actions such persons, though not prophets, demonstrate that they are an extension of the will of the transcendental. These are the people, who are destined to make history in the elevation of nations. Such is the personality of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, who was born in Bhopal on April 1, 1936, which corresponds to the Hijri era 1355, Thursday 15th Rajab. As the time has unfolded itself, the God Gifted qualities enshrined in the words “Qadeer” and “Ghafoor”, symbolized in the names of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan and his father, Mr. Abdul Ghafoor Khan, have raised the Pakistani nation to new heights in high technology.
    After receiving his early education in Bhopal,
    • Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan obtained the degree of Bachelor of Science in 1960 from the University of Karachi.
    • This was the beginning of the unfolding of his intellectual power. Subsequently, he studied in Berlin, West Germany and achieved high competence through attending several courses in metallurgical engineering. He obtained the degree of Master of Science (Technology) in 1967 from Delft Technological University, Holland
    • Acheived Doctor of Engineering Degree in 1972 from the University of Leuven, Belgium.
    • The restless soul of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan took him to several laboratories in Europe including Uranium Enrichment Plant in Holland.It was the essence of his being sharpened by high scholastic achievements in metallurgical and nuclear science that his will and essence at all times remained directed towards the welfare of Pakistan.
    • In 1976, he joined the Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL) in Pakistan and set up an uranium enrichment industrial plant.
    • As a tribute to his services for the security of Pakistan on May 1, 1981, the then President of Pakistan, General Mohammed Zia-ul-Haq renamed the Engineering Research Laboratories, Kahuta, as, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan Research Laboratories (KRL).
    These laboratories were equipped from nothing to something focusing on enrichment of Uranium for peaceful application of nuclear technology. Over the years, the laboratories became a focal point for a large number of scientists, engineers and technologists which Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan gathered around himself and guided them to the tasks which have led to unparallel advances in science and technology. This was done under very challenging and difficult circumstances. It was only his courage, devotion, determination and persistence, which earned success for him, his colleagues and indeed for the nation.
    The scientific contributions of Dr. Khan have been recognized in several ways :-
    • As an active scientist and technologist, he has published more than 188 scientific research papers in international journals of high repute.
    • He has been editor of a large number of books on metallurgy, advanced materials and phase transformation.
    • His academic and scholastic activities have attracted the attention of number of western countries where he has delivered more than 100 lectures.
    • His work on Industrial Uranium Enrichment Plant for peaceful application of nuclear technology has resulted in a breakthrough in the field of metallurgy & materials science.
    It is entirely due to his efforts that the process of enrichment of Uranium was successfully completed in Pakistan..
    Nuclear Bombs & Missiles
    This breakthrough ultimately resulted in the historic explosion of six nuclear bombs on May 28 and May 30, 1998. Not only this but a significant development was also made with the successful test firing of Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles,
    • Ghauri I, on April 6, 1998
    • Ghauri II on April 14, 1999.
    There are numerous contributions of Dr. Khan which have strengthened the defence capability of Pakistan. Those, among others, include: manufacturing of sophisticated equipment like Surface-to-Air shoulder-fired anti-aircraft ANZA (MK-I & MK-II) and Baktar Shikan anti tank guided missiles for the Armed Forces.
    Honorary Degrees
    Dr. Khan has received honorary degrees of
    • Doctor of Science from the University of Karachi in 1993
    • Doctor of Science from Baqai Medical University on December 11, 1998
    • Doctor of Science from Hamdard University, Karachi, in March 6, 1999
    • Doctor of Science from Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, N.W.F.P. on April 16,1999
    • Doctor of Science from the University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore on December 9, 2000
    • Doctor of Science from the Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi on March 25, 2001.
    Apart from his eminent contribution in the field of Science and Technology, Dr. Khan is an avid supporter of Science and Technology education in Pakistan. As the Project Director of GIK Institute of Science and Technology, he has invested his energies in developing the Institute into an exemplary high technology institution.
    For his important and eminent contributions in the field of science and technology, the President, Islamic Republic of Pakistan conferred upon Dr. Khan the award of Nishan-i-Imtiaz on 14 August, 1996 and 14 August, 1998. He is also a recipient of Hilal-i-Imtiaz. Dr. Khan is the only Pakistani to have received the highest civil award of “Nishan-i-Imtiaz” twice.
    The list of his contribution and achievement is far too long to be mentioned in this short citation. He is a person imbued with the spirit of serving the cause of Pakistan and Muslim Ummah through his able researches, high acumen, intellectual robustness and unwavering devotion. So numerous are his activities that every segment of society has praised him in different forms. He has been awarded 42 gold medals by various national institutions and organizations. He was also presented with 3 gold crowns.
    Fellowships & Memberships:
    • Dr. Khan is a Fellow of Kazakh National Academy of Sciences, the first Asian scientist with this honour,
    • Elected Fellow of the Islamic Academy of Sciences and Honorary Member of the Korean Academy of Science & Technology.
    • He has also been elected as the Chairman of the Islamic Development Bank’s Advisory Panel on Science and Technology in the Panel’s first ever meeting, held at the IDB’s headquarters in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on October 17, 2000.
    • Being a Fellow of Pakistan Academy of Sciences, he was elected unopposed the President of the Academy’s in 1997- the position that he still occupies.
    • Besides, he is a member of a large number of national and international professional organizations, which include Pakistan Institute of Metallurgical Engineers; Pakistan Institute of Engineers; and Institute of Central and West Asian Studies.
    • He is a Member of the Institute of Materials, London and of:-
    • American Society of Metal (ASM)
    • The Metallurgical Society of the American Institute of Metallurgical Mining and Petroleum Engineers (TMS)
    • Canadian Institute of Metals (CIM) and
    • Japan Institute of Metals (JIM).
    As an ardent supporter of Higher Education:
    • He sits on the Boards of Governors and Syndicates of numerous universities and institutes.
    • He is a Member of the Executive Committee GIK Institute of Engineering and Technology, TOPI
    • Member, Board of Governors, Hamdard University
    • Member, Board of Governors, Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology
    • Member Syndicate, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad; and
    • Member, Board of Governors, International Islamic University, Islamabad, among others.
    He has contributed immensely to the establishment of educational and research institutes in Pakistan. These include several colleges, schools, Institutes and academies. So wide are the applications of his activities that his contributions extend to the construction of 11 mosques, 1 tomb, a number of dispensaries and community health centers.
    It is rare that a person in single life time accomplishes so much. This is done only by men who are endowed with special abilities by ALLAH (SWT) and who prepare themselves through hard work and devotion to fulfill the mission of serving mankind.

    ARTICLES

    Dr.Abdul Qadeer Khan,now these days,writes articles in newspaper.One of his article is following:
     





    Pay Tribute to Mohsin-e-Pakistan Dr.Abdul Qadeer Khan




    Nuclear Test of Pakistan

    http://www.drabdulqadeer.com

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